[REVIEW] โ€œCanonical Stories, Replacement Texts: A Review of ๐‘‡โ„Ž๐‘’ ๐ฝ๐‘Ž๐‘๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘’๐‘ ๐‘’ ๐ท๐‘–๐‘ ๐‘๐‘œ๐‘ฃ๐‘’๐‘Ÿ๐‘ฆ ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐ถโ„Ž๐‘–๐‘›๐‘’๐‘ ๐‘’ ๐น๐‘–๐‘๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘›โ€ by Tim Murphy

{Written by Tim Murphy, this review is part of Issue 46 of Cha.} {Return to Cha Review of Books and Films.}

William C. Hedberg, The Japanese Discovery of Chinese Fiction: The Water Margin and the Making of a National Canon, Columbia University Press, 2019, 264 pgs.

Little is known about the 14th-century writer, Shi Naiโ€™an (c.1296โ€“1372), who is widely reputed to be the author of one of the Four Classic Novels of the Chinese literary tradition, namely Shuihu zhuan ๆฐดๆปธๅ‚ณ, known in English as The Water Margin. The story of the rebellion of 108 bandit gallants against the corrupt 12th-century Song imperial court begins in a time of plague during the previous century. While visiting a temple to seek assistance in controlling the plague, an arrogant court official forces open a sealed coffer, releasing 108 imprisoned spirits that are reincarnated as the outlaws. A masterpiece of characterisation, the narrative tells of the outlawsโ€™ backstories and adventures before their gathering in the Liangshan marshes of north-eastern China in the 71st chapter of the bookโ€™s longer editions, which are 100 or 120 chapters long. These editions include an imperial pardon for the outlaws, after which they serve the emperor in military campaigns against invaders and other bandits. There is complexity and moral ambiguity in the details of how the bandits fare after their pardons and imperial service. The outlaw leader, โ€œTimely Rainโ€ Song Jiang, for example, is appointed a provincial governor but later poisoned at the behest of corrupt court officials. It is left to the dreaming emperor to acknowledge Song Jiangโ€™s loyalty in the melancholy final chapter.

In The Loyal and Righteous Water Margin with Commentary by Mr. Li Zhuowu, the philosopher, Li Zhuowu (1527โ€“1602), interpreted the outlawsโ€™ rebellion sympathetically, given the background of imperial corruption and injustice. Yet The Water Margin has always been considered an unusual part of the classical Chinese canon because its subaltern focus challenges traditional Confucian ideas of duty and loyalty. Jin Shengtanโ€™s (1608โ€“1661) truncated 70-chapter versionโ€”titled The Fifth Book for Men of Genius: Shi Naiโ€™anโ€™s โ€œThe Water Marginโ€โ€”is harsh in its judgement of the outlaws. Jin Shengtan eliminated the imperial pardon and instead had the narrative culminate with one outlaw, โ€œJade Unicornโ€ Lu Junyi, having a hideous dream of all 108 outlaws being executed in retribution for their rebellion against the imperial court.

Chinese editions of The Water Margin began to appear in Japan during the 17th century, when the port of Nagasaki acted as the focus for the importing of contemporary Chinese material and textual culture. Japanese translations appeared in the 18th century and William C. Hedbergโ€™s academic monograph, The Japanese Discovery of Chinese Fiction: The Water Margin and the Making of a National Canon, brings to life the ways in which different versions of the classic text subsequently became part of Japanese literary culture. The extent of Japanese literary engagement with The Water Margin during the 18th and 19th century Edo period and the later Meiji and Taishล periods (c.1868โ€“1926) was quite extraordinary, as is the extent of the bookโ€™s influence in Japan. Hedbergโ€™s book addresses the formation of the Japanese literary canon, as well as the more general nature of texts, commentaries, and adaptations of various kinds. It is a scholarly work aimed at the specialist reader that makes an important contribution to the field of East Asian studies, and particularly to Japanโ€™s literary history and historiography.

The Japanese Discovery of Chinese Fiction has four chapters. The first deals with vernacular philology: the early editions of The Water Margin in Japan were written in vernacular Chinese and the book acted as a catalyst for a shift away from the literary Sinitic and traditional moralism of Confucian scholarship found in other classical Chinese texts. Two of the other chapters deal with the literary and critical reception and regular re-shaping of The Water Margin in Japan. One chapter focuses on the ways in which the bookโ€™s narratological mode and moral themes became more significant in Japan during the 18th– and 19th-century Edo period, and another chapter surveys the bookโ€™s reception during the Meiji and Taishล periods (c.1868โ€“1926). There is also a chapter on modern Japanese Chinese-literature historiography (Shina bungakushi).

The material is complex, but Hedbergโ€™s style is lucid throughout, and the high quality of his research and analysis admirable. Two substantive points are addressed in this review. The first point concerns Hedbergโ€™s preference for considering a canonical work like The Water Margin as prone to โ€œreplacementโ€ rather than any kind of โ€œreceptionโ€, an argument that he develops by drawing on Michael Emmerichโ€™s 2013 book, The Tale of Genji: Translation, Canonization, and World Literature (Columbia University Press). The second point relates to Hedbergโ€™s account of the interpretation of The Water Margin by the Japanese poet and critic, Masaoka Shiki (1867โ€“1902).

Although popular lore places the bookโ€™s authorship in the 14th century with Shi Naiโ€™an, Hedberg clarifies that the novel that we are familiar with today appears to be a product of 16th-century China. He rejects, however, the idea of a stable text of The Water Margin being transmitted intact from one reader to the next in China or in early modern Japan. Edo-period Japanese readers, Hedberg insists, did not read a novel called The Water Margin but rather variously titled versions with critical commentaries (pingdian) by Chinese scholars including, but by no means limited to, Li Zhuowu and Jin Shengtan. The multiple critical and commentarial editions of The Water Margin engendered divergent reading experiences, and these in turn became a perennial source of inspiration for translations, adaptations, pastiches, parodies, and commercial spin-offs of all kinds. Hedberg argues against the notion of the passive โ€œreceptionโ€ of canonical books and instead approves Emmerichโ€™s view that it is better to think of these books being constantly subjected to โ€œreplacementโ€ by new, different versions of themselvesโ€”indeed, Emmerich suggests that the production of these replacements leads to the canonisation of particular works, rather than vice versa.

One famous and notably broad interpretation of The Water Margin is the adaptation by Kyokutei Bakin (1767โ€“1848), Nansล Satomi hakkenden [The Eight Dog Chronicles], or simply Hakkenden, which contributed to the Japanese โ€œmoral and cultural domesticationโ€ of The Water Margin. Hakkenden re-shapes ideas from the Chinese classic into a fantasy novel about eight young warriors or โ€œdog-knightsโ€ in 16th-century Japan. Emmerichโ€™s โ€œreplacement theoryโ€ gives significance not just to radical adaptations like Hakkenden but also to the production of derivative secondary works. These include the famous set of musha-e colour woodblock prints of the bandits prepared by Utagawa Kuniyoshi between 1827 and 1830โ€”and beyond that to public works of art, stamps, lottery tickets, boardgames, and even advertising gimmicks. While these latter types of adaptation may seem trivial, the suggestion is that they nonetheless participate in textual transmission by expressing and replacing understandings about the canonical text that are handed down between generations. Given the many instances globally of half-remembered myths and folk tales in which characters or plot developments are widely identifiable only by some caricaturable trope or feature, this may not be as far-fetched as it sounds. Hedberg justifies his own use of Emmerichโ€™s approach because it shifts the focus from non-existent โ€œoriginal urtextsโ€, and because it allows for a clearer view of the role of ideology in textual transmission, but not all readers will be convinced. There seems to be ambiguity in Emmerichโ€™s perspective. When does an original canonical โ€œurtextโ€, for example, become sufficiently identifiable for โ€œreceptionโ€, rather than replacement, to be possible? Or is the suggestion that no work at all can become canonical without being first being โ€œreplacedโ€? It seems wise of Hedberg to express reservations about Emmerichโ€™s more extreme idea that replacements are โ€œvastly more importantโ€ than their referents.

When The Water Margin was imported originally into Japan, it was considered more a chronicle or account (zhizhuan) because the narrative has, loosely speaking, a verifiable historical source in early 12th-century Song history. But Japanese readers and critics of the Meiji and Taishล periods read The Water Margin as a novel and with the shared conviction that it offered โ€œinsight into a putative Chinese character that acted as both foil and supplement to Japanese modernityโ€. This sometimes involved acknowledging the vitality that Japan had jettisoned in its drive for Western-style modernity, but, given the โ€œessenceโ€ of China depicted in The Water Margin was considered more backward than vital, Hedberg observes the stronger role of an โ€œunmistakably racist discourse of Japanese spiritual sophisticationโ€. Both trends are apparent in the perspective of the Japanese fiction writer and poet, Ryลซnosuke Akutagawa (1892โ€“1927). Akutagawa thought that the outlaws were โ€œjust a bunch of hoodlums from start to finishโ€, and he interpreted their disregard for social order in terms of a quasi-Nietzschean supra-morality: the trampling underfoot of โ€œmere questions of good and evilโ€, he wrote, โ€œhas always had a strong root in the Chinese mindsetโ€. Hedberg remarks, however, that there was some โ€œambiguous admirationโ€ on Akutagawaโ€™s part for this alleged quality of Chinese thought.

Another Japanese commentator of this period was Masaoka Shiki, who published an essay in 1900 that compared The Water Margin and Hakkenden. Shiki emphasised โ€œa feeling of finenessโ€ (kanji no yoi) experienced by readers of The Water Margin. According to Hedberg, kanji no yoi denotes a work of art or literature that inspires, often by means of an unexpected juxtaposition of details, โ€œa sudden, intuitive rush of joyโ€โ€”a response that Shiki associated with The Water Margin and contrasted with the cerebral, deliberative appreciation demanded by complex narratives like Bakinโ€™s Hakkenden. Hedberg refers to Shikiโ€™s discussion of kanji no yoi in the episode in The Water Margin concerning the outlaw nicknamed โ€œThe Tattooed Monkโ€, Lu Zhishen, who escapes from a monastery in search of a drink and finds a wine vendor singing war songs.

Hedberg suggests that Shikiโ€™s perspective on The Water Margin situates the novel โ€œin the discourse of haiku poetics developed by Shiki elsewhereโ€, which sounds intriguing given that Shiki is considered one of the four great Japanese haiku mastersโ€”after Matsuo Bashล (1644-1694), Yosa Buson (1716โ€“1784), and Kobayashi Issa (1763โ€“1828). Yet Shikiโ€™s discussion of kanji no yoi in the episode involving โ€œThe Tattooed Monkโ€โ€”the notion, for example, that the โ€œdisjunctureโ€ between the monastery and the murderous monk is a special kind of โ€œcontrastโ€โ€”seems a far cry from the ideas of juxtaposition in haiku poetry. Juxtaposition in a typical three-line haiku refers to the potential contrast between the single kigo (or โ€œseason wordโ€) line and the other two lines, which is a sense of contrast grounded in the brevity and singularity of haiku. The idea of kanji no yoi is not commonly found in the discourse around haiku poetry, and it seems therefore that Shikiโ€™s attempt to identify these kinds of instances in books like The Water Margin was to support his general (and still controversial) view that haiku should be considered a literary form like any other, including novels.

At any rate, these are just a couple of the many talking points raised by this impressive book. Hedberg has successfully built on existing research to construct an engaging account of The Water Marginโ€™s significant influence on Japanese literary culture. The Japanese Discovery of Chinese Fiction is highly recommended to those with a special interest in the classic Chinese text as well as those engaged with Japanese literary history and historiography.

How to cite: Murphy, Tim. โ€œCanonical Stories, Replacement Texts: A Review of The Japanese Discovery of Chinese Fiction.โ€ Cha: An Asian Literary Journal, 05 Jul. 2021, chajournal.blog/2021/07/05/water-margin/.


Tim Murphy is the author of two poetry chapbooks, Art Is the Answer (Yavanika Press, 2019) and The Cacti Do Not Move (SurVision Books, 2019). His poems have also appeared in FronteraMaintenantModern HaikuSnakeskinSnapdragon, and Sulfur, among other places. He has worked as a philosopher of law at universities in the UK, France, Ireland, Iceland, Malaysia, and Spain. His academic publications include Rethinking the War on Drugs in Ireland (Cork University Press, 1996) and Law and Justice in Community (with Garrett Barden; Oxford University Press, 2010). Originally from Cork in Ireland, he lives in Spain.  

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